Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite to go around the Earth. It was made by the Soviet Union. It was launched on 4 October 1957 at Baikonur Cosmodrome. It orbited the Earth for three months. It carried a radio transmitter. It did 1,440 orbits of the Earth during this time. It went down into Earth's atmosphere on 4 January 1958 and burned up. The United States was very surprised when the Soviet Union sent Sputnik 1 into space. It did not want to fall behind. So, it began spending more money on science and education. This was when the Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States began.